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Tedbury Camp, Somerset

© GeoconservationUK ESO-S Project, 2017

It is anticipated that the ideas and materials presented here will be adapted by schools, and others, to be more appropriate for their own purposes and programmes of study.

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AQA (GCSE Science A and B)

Biology 1b Evolution and Environment:

Using skills & understanding of how science works to:

  • Interpret evidence relating to evolutionary theory.

Substantive contexts:

  • Fossils provide evidence of how much (or how little) different organisms have changed since life developed on Earth.

Chemistry 1a Products from Rocks:

Substantive contexts:

  • Limestone, metal ores and fuels, and the environmental, social and economic effects of exploration.
  • Products made from Geological resources.

Chemistry 1b Oils, Earth and Atmosphere:

Using skills & understanding of how science works to:

  • Explain why the theory of crustal movement was not generally accepted for many years after it was proposed.

Substantive contexts:

  • The Earth consists of a core, mantle and crust.
  • The earth’s crust and upper mantle (lithosphere) are cracked into tectonic plates caused by convection currents in the mantle to move at relative speed of a few centimetres per year.
  • Earthquakes and / or volcanic eruptions can occur at the boundaries between tectonic plates.

Edexcel (GCSE Science)

B1a: Topic 1, Environment:

  • Explain that fossils provide evidence for evolution.

OCR – GCSE (Gateway) Science)

B2: Understanding Our Environment

  • State that fossils can provide evidence for living organisms from a long time ago.
  • Explain that animals and plants can change over long periods of time and that fossils provide evidence for this.
  • Describe how the relative positions of fossils in rock layers can be used to show evolutionary changes during long periods of time.
  • Describe how organisms may have become fossilised: (hard body parts buried and gradually replaced by minerals; casts / impressions; preservation in amber, peat, tar, ice.
  • Explain that the fossil record is incomplete: some body parts are rarely fossilised; fossilisation is rare; many fossils have not yet been discovered.
  • Explain that when environments change some animal and plant species survive or evolve, but many become extinct.

C2: Rocks And Metals

  • Construction materials, including those manufactured from rocks in the earth’s crust.
  • State that some rocks are used to construct buildings: granite, limestone, marble.
  • Describe that marble is much harder than limestone and that granite is harder than marble.
  • Explain why granite, marble and limestone have different hardnesses.
  • Limestone is a sedimentary rock.
  • Marble is a metamorphic rock made by the action of high pressures and temperatures on limestone.
  • Granite is an igneous rock.
  • State that limestone and marble are both forms of calcium carbonate.
  • Environmental problems resulting form quarrying.

C2: Rocks And Metals

  • State that the movement of tectonic plates results in volcanic activity and earthquakes.
  • Describe the lithosphere as the (relatively) cold rigid outer part of the earth that includes the crust and outer part of the mantle.
  • Explain that tectonic plates are found on top of the mantle because they are less dense.

P2 Living For The Future:

  • Describe the shape of the Earth’s magnetic field (and describe that) a plotting compass shows the direction of a magnetic field.

OCR – 21st Century Science

P1 The Earth In The Universe:

  • Recall that rocks provide evidence for changes in the earth (erosion and sedimentation, fossils, folding, radioactive dating, craters).
  • Understand that continents would be worn down to sea level if mountains were not being continuously formed.
  • Understand that the rock processes seen today can account for past changes.
  • Recall that earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain building generally occur at the edges of tectonic plates.
  • Understand how the movement of tectonic plates causes earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain building and contributes to the rock cycle.

B3 Life On Earth:

  • Understand that evidence for evolution is provided by fossils and from analysis of similarities and differences in DNA of organisms.

Welsh Board – GCSE Science

B1: Topic 3, Evolution:

  • Examine evidence and interpret data about how organisms and species have changed over time. *Suggest reasons why species may become extinct.

C1 Topic 3, Using Chemical Reactions To Make New Materials

  • Useful products from raw materials from the earth, sea and air.

C1 Topic 8, Geological Processes

  • (know that the slow movement of tectonic plates) drives the rock cycle.

WJEC – GCSE Chemistry (Separate Subject)

C3 Topic, Limestone

  • Uses of limestone and the social, economic and environmental effects of limestone quarrying

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